Micropterus dolomieu

smallmouth bass



Type Locality

None given (Lacepède 1802; Lee 1980).


Etymology/Derivation of Scientific Name

Micropterus: small fin; dolomieui: in honor of M. Dolomieu, a French mineralogist and friend of Lacepède, for whom dolomite was named (Becker 1983).



Micropterus dolomieu Lacepède 1802:324 in Eschmeyer 1990 (original description); Hay 1883:64.

Micropterus dolomieui Cook 1959:187.



Maximum size: 686 mm TL (Lee 1980).


Coloration: Head and back yellowish brown to olivaceous; head with 3 dark stripes extending from snout to eye; eye reddish orange; sides lighter than back, with 9-16 dark vertical bars; abdomen yellowish white. Opercle with a dark spot. Caudal fin of adult with dark margin; in young with yellowish base, white margin, and medial dark band. Color influenced by habitat and age (Sublette et al. 1990). Peritonium silvery (Scott and Crossman 1973; Goldstein and Simon 1999). Spawning males dark greenish bronze, the back markings and lateral bars blackish, eyes more red; spawning females are pale, light green or yellowish, strongly mottled with spots or bands (Hardy 1978).


Counts: Hubbs et al. (1991) listed the following counts for Micropterus dolomieu in Texas: 13-15 dorsal soft rays; 28-32 scales around caudle peduncle; 11-14 scales above lateral line; 19-25 scales below lateral line; more than 55 lateral line scales; 3 anal spines (rarely 2 or 4); 6-13 dorsal fin spines; 6 or 7 branchiostegals (Hubbs et al. 1991). Lateral line scales 68-76 (Miller and Robison 2004); 11 anal rays, and 16-18 pectoral rays (Ross 2001).


Body shape:  Body depth usually contained 3-5 times in standard length (Hubbs et al. 1991); body robust, laterally compressed (Hardy 1978).


Mouth position: Terminal, slightly oblique (Scott and Crossman 1973; Goldstein and Simon 1999).


External morphology: Shortest dorsal fin contained 1.1 to 2.5 times in longest dorsal spine; bases of soft dorsal and anal fins scaled; lateral line present; scales ctenoid (Hubbs et al. 1991); pectoral fins short, rounded; pelvic fins thoracic, located directly under the pectorals which are about the same length; anal fin short, rounded; caudal fin shallowly notched (Sublette et al. 1990).


Internal morphology: Intestine well differentiated; pyloric caeca present; pharyngeal teeth and plates present (Scott and Crossman 1973; Goldstein and Simon 1999); pyloric caecae not branched (Hubbs et al 1991); fine, brush-like teeth on both jaws, palatines, and vomer; lower pharyngeal teeth on long, narrow pad, numerous, fine, and uniform in size (Hardy 1978).


Distribution (Native and Introduced)

U.S. distribution: Native to northern streams east of the Rocky Mountains but has been widely introduced throughout the world (Hubbs et al. 1991).


Texas distribution: Widely stocked, particularly in Edwards Plateau streams and reservoirs (Hubbs et al. 1991).


Abundance/Conservation status (Federal, State, NGO)

Populations in the southern United States are currently stable (Warren et al. 2000).


Habitat Associations

Macrohabitat: Generally found in cool, clear streams, lakes, and reservoirs, although they may inhabit turbid streams (Coble 1975; Becker 1983; Ross 2001); found also in small ponds (Coble 1975).


Mesohabitat: Species prefers clear, fast-flowing streams and flowing pools with gravel-rubble bottom (Lee 1980). In typical stream, species inhabits the middle section with cool water, rocky bottom, and good gradient with large pools between riffles (Coble 1975). In the Devils River, Texas, Micropterus dolomieu was found most frequently in marginal pools (Robertson et al. 2003). In Lake Texoma, Texas-Oklahoma, Gido (2002) reported greatest abundance of this species in exposed sites near dam; juveniles typically occupied exposed shorelines with relatively high transparency. Found at summer water temperatures of 19.5-21.7°C, with an apparent preference of 21°C; during winter, fish seek out areas of rock or rubble to serve as protection from higher current flow; individuals usually become inactive at temperatures below 10-15°C (Coble 1975; Coutant 1975; Rankin 1986). Commonly found over rubble or gravel substrata (Lyons 1991), but may prefer rock substrata only when an adequate amount of space is available between rocks to provide a place to hide (Sechnick et al. 1986). Throughout most of the original range of M. dolomieu, Ambloplites rupestris (rock bass) has been found to occur with this species (Coble 1975).



Spawning season: In the spring at water temperatures of 15.6-25.6°C; mid-April to early May in the Southeast (Smitherman and Ramsey 1972; Coble 1975). In the New River drainage, Virginia and West Virginia, spawning occured from late April through mid-July at mean daily water temperatures ranging from 12.5-23.5 degrees C; increase of the water temperature and absolute temperature are equally important in the initiation of spawning (Graham and Orth 1986). In streams, spawning is influenced by hydrologic variables; as spawning frequently coincides with receding or stable stream flows, flooding will interrupt the process (Graham and Orth 1986; Sublette et al. 1990). According to Tester (1930) spawning is dependent on water temperature and varies with geographical latitude, size of water body in which nests occur, and with earliness or lateness of season.


Spawning location: Polyphils; miscellaneous substrate and material nesters that have adhesive eggs either attached or occur in clusters on any available substrate (Simon 1999). Male moves to shallow area of lake or river and constructs nest using violent sweeping motions of the caudal fin; nests are usually associated with overhead or underwater cover, generally with sand or gravel substrata, and sometimes woody debris (Pflieger 1966; Coble 1975; Vogele and Rainwater 1975; Winemiller and Taylor 1982). Tester (1930) reported that nests in waters of Ontario, Canada were found in  areas sheltered from direct wind and wave action, and usually further protected from predators by submerged rocks or fallen trees, in water with depth of 3-4 feet. In a small stream of the Missouri Ozarks, Pflieger (1966) found nests in quiet water, usually near shore and near cover of undercut banks, submerged logs, or deeper water; nests were saucer-shaped depressions approximately 2 feet in diameter and 2-4 inches deep in the center. Eggs are demersal, and are initially attached to each other and to stones in the nest; ultimately eggs lose adhesiveness and fall into spaces between stones (Coble 1975; Hardy 1978).


Reproductive strategy: Guarder; nest spawner (Simon 1999). Male constructs nest, completing task in 4 – 48+ hours (Hubbs and Bailey 1938).After excavating nest, the male swims away to find a female; once a receptive female is found the male uses mouth to gently nip at the ventral area of the female to direct her toward the nest site; upon reaching the nest site the pair swim in a circle above or to the side of the nest, with the male making frequent contact-nips at the opercle area of the female; the male and female make contact with or come close to the nest substrate; pair turn to face center of the nest and eggs are released and fertilized (Ridgeway et al. 1989). A pair may spawn several times, or a male may spawn with different females resulting in a single nest containing from 1,092 – 19,942 (average 6,300) eggs (Wiegmann et al. 1992). A second spawning may occur a month or more after the first, whether or not eggs or fry from the first spawning are lost to adverse weather conditions (Smitherman and Ramsey 1972; Coble 1975). Males actively guard the nest and young from time of egg deposition to fry dispersal (Tester 1930; Webster 1948; Coble 1975). Successful nests may produce 1,000 – 5,000+ fry (Coble 1975).


Fecundity: A female will produce from 1,550 to 27,200 eggs, depending upon age and size (Serns 1984). Eggs of smallmouth bass average 2.2 (1.8-2.5) mm in diameter (Tester 1930; Fish 1932; Meyer 1970; Becker 1983). Incubation at various temperatures reported to range from 10 days at about 12.2 C to 2.5 days at 25.6 C (Hardy 1978).


Age at maturation:  Males reach maturity at ages 2-4 and females at ages 3-4 (Coble 1975); maturity is reached at 3-4 years of age (Mraz 1960; Nord 1967; Becker 1983).


Migration: Tend to be relatively sedentary and show little tendency for long-distance movement (Funk 1955; Coble 1975).


Longevity: About 15 years (Scott and Crossman 1973; Coble 1975).


Food habits: Goldstein and Simon (1999) listed first and second level trophic classifications and trophic mode for this species as invertivore/carnivore, benthic/whole body, and hunter/ambush, respectively; classifications based on main food items consumed by Ontario, Canada populations including aquatic and terrestrial insects (0-10% of food volume), crayfish (60-90%), and fishes (10-30%; Tester 1932). Fish actively feeds on crayfish (Probst et al. 1984; Goldstein and Simon 1999), but crayfish is an unimportant food item in the diet of young-of-year fish; Rankin (1986) noted that fish <80 mm TL did not feed on crayfish. Larval fish of 7-10 mm SL in length feed on small midge larvae, copepods, and rotifers (Pflieger 1966); larval fish feed on minute midge larvae, Daphnia, or other small crustacean before the yolk sac is absorbed (Moore 1922; Becker 1983). Fish measuring 50.8-99.0 mm TL feed mainly on small crustaceans (especially copepods), aquatic insects, and fishes; individuals larger than 100 mm TL consume mainly, but large aquatic insects and crayfishes are taken depending on availability (Applegate et al. 1967; Coble 1975; Hubert 1977; George and Hadley 1979; Ross 2001). Adult bass feed mainly during the early morning and early evening, while young bass feed throughout the day, and may feed at night (Hubbs and Bailey 1938; Helfman 1981). Diet of Devils River, Texas population dominated by insects (mainly mayflies, found in 54.4% of stomachs), with small fish species (found in 32% of stomachs) comprising a large portion of the diet, as well; while there was an  apparent preference for Dionda argentosa (Manatial roundnose minnow), M. dolomieu were opportunistic when consuming fish prey (Robertson and Winemiller 2001). Studies which focused heavily on older specimens in Canyon Lake and Lake Texoma, Texas populations found both fish and crayfish to be important diet items (Robertson and Winemiller 2001). This species is a visual predator, likely foraging most efficiently in downlake habitats where transparency is greatest (Gido 2002).


Growth and population structure: In the Devils River, Texas, growth was rapid, particularly during the 2nd year; average TL during the 1st year was 116 mm, and the mean length increment during the 2nd year was 179 mm; data for ages 3, 4, and 5 (based on only 4 specimens) also suggested high growth rates in the same location; mean total lengths of fish captured were 116.6 mm, 296.0 mm, 387.9 mm, 432.9 mm, and 458.9 mm at ages 1-5, respectively; although populations inhabiting reservoirs usually attain larger sizes, the growth rate of the Devils River population was higher than those in Texas reservoirs; rapid growth of this population attributed to longer growing season in southern extension of range, as well as diet (Robertson and Winemiller 2001). Mean total lengths of fish in Lake Texoma, Texas, were 103 mm, 257 mm, 341 mm, 431 mm, and 468 mm at ages 1-5, respectively (Gilliland et al. 1991; Robertson and Winemiller 2001). Mean total lengths of fish in Canyon Lake, Texas, were 154.5 mm, 227.6 mm, 325.7 mm, 389.7 mm, and 410.6 mm at ages 1-5, respectively (Garrett 1985; Robertson and Winemiller 2001). Growth rates vary widely between regions, with southeastern fish generally having higher rates; average TL based on a number of populations are: 94 mm, 170 mm, 234 mm, 279 mm, 323 mm, 358 mm, 381 mm, 404 mm, and 429 mm at years 1-9, respectively; no differences in growth rates between males and females (Coble 1975). Males maturing earliest have the fastest growth rates (Raffeto et al. 1990).


Phylogeny and morphologically similar fishes

Micropterus dolomieu most similar to M. punctulatus (spotted bass), from which it differs in lacking a dark lateral band and in having 11-13 versus 7-9 scales above the lateral line (Ross 2001). M. dolomieu differs from M. salmoides (largemouth bass) in that M. salmoides has black stripe (no bars) along side, a larger mouth, a deep notch between 1st and 2nd dorsal fin, and usually 60-72 lateral scales (Page and Burr 1991).  M. dolomieu X M. treculii (Guadalupe bass) hybrids reported (Edwards 1979; Whitmore and Butler 1982). Littrell et al. (2007) reported collection of M. dolomieu X M. salmoides, M. dolomieu X M. treculii, and M.dolomieu X M. treculii X M. salmoides hybrids from Texas waters; natural hybridization between M. dolomieu and M. salmoides also reported by Whitmore and Hellier (1988). Morizot et al. (1991) reported a three species hybrid which was a combination of M. dolomieu, M. salmoides (largemouth bass), and M. trecilii (Guadalupe bass) parents (most likely M. dolomieu mating with a M. salmoides X M. treculii Fı hybrid). Koppelman (1994) reported a M. dolomieu X M. punctulatus hybrid from the Missouri River system, in central Missouri; Pierce and Van Den Avyle (1997) also reported hybrids between these two species from reservoir populations.


Host Records

Trematoda: Caecinola parvulus (Mayberry et al. 2000). The bass tapeworm, Proteocephalus ambloplitis (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidae) reported from this species in Gull Lake, Michigan (Gillilland and Muzzall 2004). Hoffman (1967) reported parasites of this species over entire range: protozoans (12), trematodes (49), cestodes (12), nematodes (13), acanthocephalans (9), leeches (9), molluscs (1), and crustaceans (9).


Commercial or Environmental Importance

According to Morizot et al. (1991), there is a need to cease introduction of Micropterus dolomieu into central Texas watersheds, in order to prevent the creation of hybrid swarms which have the potential to extirpate endemic Guadalupe bass (M. treculii) populations. Introduced bass likely affect small fish populations through predation, competition, or aggression (Fuller et al. 1999; Simon and Markle 1999). Robertson et al. (2003) suggested further evaluation of the impact of Micropterus dolomieu on native fishes of the Devils River, Texas, as studies indicate that threatened fish species (Etheostoma grahami, the Rio Grande darter, and Cyprinella proserpina, the proserpine shiner) may be negatively affected by the nonindigenous smallmouth bass (Valdes and Winemiller 1997; Robertson et al. 2003). This species is one of the most popular and economically important sport fish in North America (Ross 2001; Miller and Robison 2004; Suski and Philipp 2004).


[Additional literature noting collection of this species from Texas locations includes, but is not limited to the following: Wilde et al. (1998); Lake Texoma (Lienesch and Matthews 2000).]



Applegate, R.L., J.W. Mullan and D.I. Morais. 1967. Food and growth of six centrarchids from shoreline areas of Bull Shoals Reservoir. Proc. S. E. Assoc. Game Fish Comm. 20:469-482.

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1052 pp.

Coble, D. W. 1975. Smallmouth bass. In: Black bass biology and management. H. Clepper, ed. Sport Fishing Institute, Washington, D.C. 534 pp.

Cook, F.A. 1959. Freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Mississippi Game and Fish Commission, Jackson. 239 pp.

Coutant, C.C. 1975. Responses of bass to natural and artificial temperatures regimes, pp. 272-285. In: Black bass biology and management. H. Clepper, ed. Sport Fishing Institute, Washington, D.C. 534 pp.

Edwards, R.J. 1979. A report of Guadalupe bass (Micropterus treculi) X smallmouth bass (M. dolomieui) hybrids from two localities in the Guadalupe River, Texas. Texas Journal of Science 31(3):231-238.

Eschmeyer, W.N. 1990. Catalog of the genera of recent fishes. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.

Fish, M.P. 1932. Contributions to the early life histories of sixty-two species from Lake Erie and its tributary waters. Bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries 47:293-398.

Fuller, P.L., L.G. Nico, and J.D. 1999. Nonindigenous Fishes Introduced into Inland Waters of the United States. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 27, Bethesda, Maryland. 613 pp.

Funk, J.L. 1955. Movement of stream fishes in Missouri. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 85:39-57.

Garrett, G.P. 1985. Aspects of the life history of smallmouth bass in a Texas reservoir. Annual Proceedings of the Texas Chapter of the American Fisheries Society 8:46-61.

George, E.L., and W.F. Hadley. 1979. Food and habitat partitioning between rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) young of the year. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 108:253-261.

Gido, K.B., C.W. Hargrave, W.J. Matthews, G.D. Schnell, D.W. Pogue, and G.W. Sewell. 2002. Structure of littoral-zone fish communities in relation to habitat, physical, and chemical gradients in a southern reservoir. Environmental Biology of Fishes 63:253-263.

Gillilland, M.G., III, and P.M. Muzzall. 2004. Microhabitat analysis of bass tapeworm, Proteocephalus ambloplitis (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidae), in smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, and largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, from Gull Lake, Michigan, U.S.A. Comp. Parasitol. 71(2):221-225.

Gilliland, E., R. Horton, B. Hysmith, and J. Moczygemba. 1991. Smallmouth bass in Lake Texoma, a case history. In: Jackson, D., editor. First international smallmouth bass symposium. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi State University, Meridian. Pp. 104-109.

Goldstein, R.M., and T.P. Simon. 1999. Toward a united definition of guild structure for feeding ecology of North American freshwater fishes. pp. 123-202 in T.P. Simon, editor. Assessing the sustainability and biological integrity of water resources using fish communities. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 671 pp.

Graham, R.J., and D.J. Orth. 1986. Effects of temperature and streamflow on time and duration of spawning by smallmouth bass. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 115:693-702.

Hardy, J.D. 1978. Development of Fishes in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Volume III -Aphredoderidae through Rachycentridae. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Solomons, Maryland. 392 pp.

Hay, O.P. 1883. On a collection of fishes from the lower Mississippi valley. Bull. U.S. Fish. Comm. 2:57-75.

Helfman, G.S. 1981. Twighlight activities and temporal structure in a freshwater fish community. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 38(11):1405-1420.

Hoffman, G.L. 1967. Parasites of North American Freshwater Fishes. University of California Press, Berkeley. 486 pp.

Hubbs, C., R.J. Edwards, and G.P. Garrett. 1991. An annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Texas, with keys to identification of species. Texas Journal of Science, Supplement 43(4):1-56.

Hubbs, C.L., and R.M. Bailey. 1938. The smallmouth bass. Cranbrook Inst. Sci. Bull. No. 10. 92 pp.

Hubert, W.A. 1977. Comparative food habits of smallmouth and largemouth basses in Pickwick Reservoir. J. Ala. Acad. Sci. 48(4):167-178.

Koppleman, J.B. 1994. Hybridization between smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, and spotted bass, M. puntulatus, in the Missouri River system, Missouri. Copeia 1994(1):204-210.

Lacepede, BG.E. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, 4:1-728.

Lee, D.S. 1980.  Micropterus dolomieui (Lacepede), Smallmouth bass. pp. 605 in D. S. Lee et al., Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. N. C. State Mus. Nat. Hist., Raleigh, i-r+854 pp.

Lienesch, P.W., and W.J. Matthews. 2000. Daily fish and zooplankton abundances in the littoral zone of Lake Texoma, Oklahoma-Texas, in relation to abiotic variables. Environmental Biology of Fishes 59(3):271-283.

Littrell, B.M., D.J. Lutz-Carrillo, T.H. Bonner, and L.T. Fries. 2007. Status of an introgressed Guadalupe bass population in a central Texas stream. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 27:785-791.

Mayberry, L.F., A.G. Canaris, J.R. Bristol, and S.L. Gardner. 2000. Bibliography of parasites and vertebrate host in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas (1893-1984). University of Nebraska Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology Web Server, published on the World-Wide-Web. 100 pp.

Meyer, F.A. 1970. Development of some larval centrachids. Progressive Fish-Culturist 32(3):130-136.

Miller, R.J., and H.W. Robison. 2004. Fishes of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 450 pp.

Moore, E. 1922. The primary sources of food of certain food and game, and bait fishes, of Lake George. pp. 52-63 in: A biological survey of Lake George, New York. N.Y. State Conserv. Comm.

Morizot, D.C., S.W. Clahoun, L.L. Clepper, and M.E. Schmidt. 1991. Multispecies hybridization among native and introduced centrarchid basses in central Texas. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 120:283-289.

Mraz, D. 1960. Preliminary report on the Lake Geneva smallmouth bass studies (1958-1959). Wis. Conserv. Dep. Div. Fish. Mgmt. Rep. No. 1. 22 pp. (mimeo).

Nord, R.C. 1967. A compendium of fishery information on the upper Mississippi River. Upper Miss. R. Conserv. Com. 238 pp.

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes of North America, north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 pp.

Pflieger, W.L. 1966. Reproduction of the smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in a small Ozark stream. Amer. Midl. Nat. 76:410-418.

Pierce, P.C., and M.J. Van Den Avyle. 1997. Hybridization between introduced spotted bass and smallmouth bass in reservoirs. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 126:939-947.

Probst, W.E., C.R. Rabeni, W.G. Covington, and R.E. Marteney. 1984. Resource use by stream-dwelling rock bass and smallmouth bass. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 113(3):283-294.

Raffeto, N.S., J.R. Baylis, and S.L. Serns. 1990. Complete estimates of reproductive success in a closed population of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Ecology 71(4):1523-1535.

Rankin, E.T. 1986. Habitat selection by smallmouth bass in response to physical characteristics in a natural stream. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 115(2):322-334.

Ridgeway, M.S., G.P. Goff, and M.H.A. Keenleyside. 1989. Courtship and spawning behavior in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Amer. Midl. Nat. 122:209-213.

Robertson, M.S., and K.O. Winemiller. 2001. Diet and growth of smallmouth bass in the Devils River, Texas. Southwestern Naturalist 46(2):216-221.

Robertson, M.S., and K.O. Winemiller. 2003. Habitat associations of fishes in the Devils River, Texas. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 18(1):115-127.

Ross, S.T. 2001. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson. 624 pp.

Scott, W.B., and E.J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. Bulletin 184:966.

Sechnick, C.W., R.F. Carline, R.A. Stein, and E.T. Rankin. 1986. Habitat selection by smallmouth bass in response to physical characteristics of a simulated stream. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 155(2):314-321.

Serns, S.L. 1984. First-summer survival, eggs to juveniles, of smallmouth bass in Nebish Lake, Wisconsin. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 113:304-307.

Simon, T.P. 1999. Assessment of Balon’s reproductive guilds with application to Midwestern North American Freshwater Fishes, pp. 97-121. In: Simon, T.L. (ed.). Assessing the sustainability and biological integrity of water resources using fish communities. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida. 671 pp.

Simon, D.C., and D.F. Markle. 1999. Evidence of a relationship between smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and decline of Umpqua chub (Oregonicthys kalawatseti) in the Umpqua Basin, Oregon. Northwestern Naturalist 80(3):110-113.

Smitherman, R.O. and J.S. Ramsey. 1972. Obervations on spawning and growth of four species of basses (Micropterus) in ponds. Proc. S. E. Assoc. Game. Fish. Comm. 25(1971):357-365.

Sublette, J.E., M.D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The Fishes of New Mexico.  University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 393 pp.

Suski, C.D., and D.P. Phillipp. 2004. Factors affecting the vulnerability to angling of nesting largemouth and smallmouth bass. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 133:1100-1106.

Tester, A.L. 1930. Spawning habits of the small mouthed black bass in Ontario waters. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 60(1930):53-61.

Tester, A.L. 1932. Food of the small-mouthed black bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in some Ontario waters. Univ. Toronto Stud. Biol. Ser. 36, Publ. Ont. Fish. Res. Lab. 46:171-203.

Valdez, N.E., and K.O. Winemiller. 2001. Structure and habitat associations of Devils River fish assemblages. Southwestern Naturalist 42:265-278.

Vogele, L.E. and W.C. Rainwater. 1975. Use of brush shelters as cover by spawning black basses (Micropterus in Bull Shoals Reservoir. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 104(2):264-269.

Warren, M.L., Jr., B.M. Burr, S.J. Walsh, H.L. Bart, Jr., R.C. Cashner, D.A. Etnier, B.J. Freeman, B.R. Kuhajda, R.L. Mayden, H.W. Robison, S.T. Ross, and W.C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, Distribution, and Conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25(10):7-29.

Whitmore, D.H., and W. Butler. 1982. Interspecific hybridization of smallmouth and Guadalupe bass (Micropterus): evidence based on biochemical and morphological analyses. Southwestern Naturalist 27(1):99-106.

Whitmore, D.H., and T.R. Hellier. 1988. Natural hybridization between largemouth and smallmouth bass (Micropterus). Copeia 1988(2):493-496.

Wiegmann, D.D., J.R. Baylis, and M.H. Hoff. 1992. Sexual selection and fitness variation in a population of smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu(Pisces: Centrarchidae). Evolution 46(6):1740-1753.

Wilde, G.R., D.W. Strickland, K.G. Ostrand, and M.I. Muoneke. 1998. Characteristics of Texas black bass fishing tournaments. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 18(4):972-977.

Winemiller, K.O., and D.H. Taylor. 1982. Smallmouth bass nesting behavior and nest site selection in a small Ohio stream Ohio J. Sci. 82:266-273.