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Etymology/Derivation of Scientific Name
Maximum size: 250 mm (Hoese and Moore 1977).
Coloration: A dark shoulder spot (Hubbs et al 1991).
Counts: Dorsal rays XII, 11, anal rays III, 11, SC 65-70 (Hoese and Moore 1977).
Distribution (Native and Introduced)
U.S. distribution: Inhabits coastal waters from Massachusetts south through the entire Gulf of Mexico (Hubbs et al 1991).
Texas distribution: Found in most bays and estuaries in the state, also in the lower reaches of coastal streams (Hubbs et al 1991).
Abundance/Conservation status (Federal, State, NGO)
One of the most common inshore fishes except in the highly turbid brackish waters of western Louisiana (Hoese and Moore 1977).
Age at maturation:
Phylogeny and morphologically similar fishes
Trematoda: Proterometra macrostoma (Mayberry et al. 2000).
Commercial or Environmental Importance
Hubbs, C., R. J. Edwards, and G. P. Garrett. 1991. An annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Texas, with keys to identification of species. Texas Journal of Science, Supplement 43(4):1-56.
Mayberry, L.F., A.G. Canaris, J.R. Bristol, and Scott L. Gardner. 2000. Bibliography of parasites and vertebrate host in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas (1893-1984). University of Nebraska Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology Web Server, published on the World-Wide-Web, 100 pp.
Hoese, H. D. and R. H. Moore. 1977. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Texas, Louisiana, and Adjacent Waters. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 327 pp.